BCE (Before Common Era)
|11000||Wisconsin Glacier melts, recedes and carves out Lake Ontario.|
|8000||Paleo-Indians camp on the Scarborough Bluffs .
Paleo-Indian spear points
|7000||Archaic peoples camp around Toronto, mostly close to water.
Archaic spear points
|1000||Woodland period begins with the appearance of pottery vessels.
CE (Common Era)
|1000||Ontario Iroquoian farmers live in small villages throughout the Toronto area.
Ontario Iroquoian pottery
|1250||Middle Ontario Iroquoian period begins; population grows, villages increase in size, and pottery vessels are decorated with horizontal lines.
Partially restored pot
Restored "toy" pots
|1450||Several hundred Huron (Quandat) live in longhouses within a fortified village at North Toronto.
Quandat Indian village
|1500||Hurons desert Lake Ontario and move north to the area now known as Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay.
Map of Huronia, 1657
|1615||Etienne Brulé, a French Explorer, is the first European to set foot in Toronto.|
|1665||Seneca Iroquois cross Lake Ontario and establish two fur trading villages: Teiaiagon near the mouth of the Humber and Ganatsekwyagon on the lower Rouge River.
Map of Lac Ontario ou De Frontenac
|1701||Five Nations Iroquois formally relinquish the north shore of Lake Ontario to the Mississauga, Algonquian-speaking Ojibwa originally from the north end of Lake Huron.|
|1750||France builds a third, larger trading post, Fort Rouillé, at Toronto within today's Exhibition Park.
Map of New France, 1753
|1763||Britain defeats France in the Seven Years War, and gains control of Canada.|
|1783||Britain loses the American Revolutionary War, and British loyalists flood into the upper St. Lawrence and lower Great Lakes.|
|1805||The Toronto Purchase is completed: Britain buys about 250,000 acres in the Toronto region from the Mississauga Indians.
Toronto Purchase, 1805
Mississauga-French Dictionary, 1800-1